When Is Esophageal Cancer Awareness Month

The muscular, lengthy tube that joins the throat and stomach is called the esophagus. As it develops, esophageal cancer spreads across the other layers of the esophagus after beginning in the inner lining. According to the kind of cells that develop into cancer, the two most prevalent types of esophageal cancer are named:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the flat, thin squamous cells that line the esophagus. Although it can develop anywhere throughout the esophagus, this cancer is most frequently discovered in the upper and middle region of the esophagus. Additionally known as epidermoid carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that starts in cells that produce secretions in the glands. The lining of the esophagus has glandular cells that generate and secrete liquids like mucus. Adenocarcinomas typically develop in the lower esophagus, close to the stomach.

What shade of ribbon represents esophageal cancer?

With 16,000 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States, esophageal cancer affects men more frequently than it does women. The Esophageal Cancer Awareness Association recommends planting the periwinkle flower as well as wearing the color periwinkle in April to encourage awareness.

What is the esophageal cancer survival rate?

Prognosis is an assessment of how an illness will affect you over the long run. Each person’s prognosis will vary depending on a variety of variables, including:

  • what part of your body the tumor is in
  • If your cancer has spread to other bodily parts
  • How much of the tumor is removed during the operation

It’s crucial to discuss your prognosis with your doctor if you want to know more about it. The NCI also offers materials to assist you understand the prognosis for cancer.

By looking at how various groups of esophageal cancer patients have fared in the past, doctors can estimate the survival rates for the disease. Esophageal cancer has a 20 percent five-year overall survival rate, although individual survival rates might range from 5 to 47 percent. The five-year survival rate is higher for esophageal cancer when it is discovered early and when it is tiny. Treatment is more challenging and the five-year survival rate is lower when it is already large or has migrated to other body regions.

Which nation has the greatest esophageal cancer incidence?

The eighth most prevalent cancer in the world is esophageal cancer. Additionally, it is the sixth most common cancer-related cause of death globally (1,2). Over 300,000 esophageal cancer cases were reported globally in 2001. (3). Around 400,000 individuals (4.9 percent of the total) died from cancer globally in 2012, while 450,000 persons (3.2 percent of all cancers) were diagnosed with the disease. It noted a rise in incidence during the past ten years, and it is anticipated to quickly rise in incidence (4,5). The primary characteristics of this malignancy include a low rate of survival and rapid progression (6,7). Less than 20% of cancer patients survive for five years despite recent advancements in medicine for the disease (8). More than 80% of cancer incidence and fatalities take place in developing and underdeveloped nations (9,10). The defining characteristic of esophageal cancer is its geographically distributed distribution (9). China, Northeastern Iran, the Southeast United States, and Southern Africa all have the highest rates of esophageal cancer in the world (1,11). The Asian cancer belt extends from the east of Turkey and northeastern Iran to the nations of East Asia, including the north and center of China. There are more than 100 cancer cases per 100,000 people in these places (1,11). In men, esophageal cancer is more common. Male to female sex ratios range from 2 to 4 times. However, in other places it affects both men and women equally, indicating that both genders have the same exposure to the disease’s causes (3,12). Men and women experience esophageal cancer incidence differences of about 20 times, with men experiencing esophageal cancer incidence ranging from 0.8 per 100,000 in West Africa to 17 per 100,000 in East Asia, and women experiencing esophageal cancer incidence ranging from 0.02 per 100,000 in Micronesia/Polynesia (central and southern Pacific) to 7.8 per 100,000 in East Africa (4,5). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma are two of the cancer’s known forms (ADC). Numerous epidemiological characteristics and cancer risk factors are also taken into account. The main causes of SCC are alcohol, smoking, malnutrition, a history of head and neck cancer, regular beer intake, and other variables, whereas the ADC is more closely linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus, obesity, age, and male sex (8,12-14). X-ray exposure also raises both the amount and kind of cancer (15). The majority of esophageal cancer patients are SCC (16), but for unexplained reasons, the incidence is declining. However, the prevalence of ADC is increasing (17). Esophageal cancer does not have an effective screening, however individuals at high risk, such as those with Barrett’s esophagus, heavy smokers, and heavy drinkers, can have endoscopies every three to five years to find it at an early stage (17,18). The socioeconomic status of an individual has a significant impact on their lifestyle, which is one of the important factors affecting the distribution of cancer. According to studies, those with low socioeconomic status who smoke, drink excessively, or have poor nutrition are more likely to get SCC. Patients with lower income levels are more likely to experience it than those with higher income levels (19). Due to lack of access to quality medical care, those with poor socioeconomic status and low levels of education are also more likely to die from cancer (20-22).

One measure of a country’s standing in relation to the three main areas of development, the HDI is a composite of life expectancy, knowledge, and standard of living. Life expectancy at birth, potential years of schooling, and level of living, such as GPD per capita or income, are all used to quantify longevity. HDI is a number that ranges from 0 to 1. According to HDI, nations are categorized into four groups: those with extremely high HDI (HDI 0.9), those with high HDI (HDI 0.8), those with moderate HDI (0.8>HDI >0.5), and those with low HDI (HDI 0.5). The UNDP proposed the index as a way to compare nations on three human factors in 1990. East Asia and the Pacific recorded an HDI of 0.703, South Asia 0.588, and Arabic countries about 0.682. In various Asian nations, the 2013 mean of the index is lower than the worldwide mean (0.702). (23).

Numerous research have supported the significance of HDI in esophageal cancer incidence and mortality (21,24). For purposes of health planning and research, knowledge of incidence and mortality statistics is essential. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in Asia in 2012 and its association with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in light of the potential involvement.

Is esophageal cancer a malignancy that spreads quickly?

Esophageal cancer is a condition in which the tissues of the esophagus or food pipe develop abnormal cells. The stomach and mouth are connected via the food pipe.

Esophageal cancer develops gradually, and it may take years before any symptoms appear. However, esophageal cancer advances quickly once symptoms appear. The deep tissues and organs close to the esophagus can become infiltrated by the tumor as it spreads. It affects more males than women and ranks as the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Barrett esophagus is frequently an underlying disease in lower esophageal carcinoma. Because stomach acids continually irritate the bottom region of the esophagus over time, this condition causes it to get red and swell.

Is having esophageal cancer fatal?

On this page, you may learn how many people are given an esophageal cancer diagnosis each year. Additionally, you’ll learn general information on battling the illness. Recall that a number of factors affect survival rates. To view additional pages, use the navigation.

In the United States, it is anticipated that 20,640 adults (16,510 men and 4,130 women) will receive an esophageal cancer diagnosis this year. Esophageal cancer is anticipated to affect 604,100 persons globally in 2020.

The disease is more prevalent among White Americans, who are more likely to receive an adenocarcinoma diagnosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is more frequently diagnosed in black persons. One percent of cancer diagnoses in the US are for esophageal cancer. The incidence rates have been slightly declining during the previous ten years. In other parts of the world, the disease is more prevalent.

In the United States, 16,410 deaths from this illness are anticipated this year (13,250 males and 3,160 women). In the United States, esophageal cancer ranks as the sixth most prevalent cancer among men. A projected 544,076 persons worldwide would pass away from the illness in 2020.

The percentage of persons who survive at least 5 years after their cancer is discovered is shown by the 5-year survival rate. Percentage refers to the number out of 100. Esophageal cancer patients had a 20% 5-year survival rate overall. The disease’s treatment has gradually increased the survival rate. The overall 5-year survival rate was only 5% in the 1960s and 1970s.

The cancer stage at the time of the initial diagnosis is one of many variables that affect survival rates. People with cancer that has just spread to the esophagus have a 46% 5-year survival rate. With illness that has spread to nearby tissues or organs and/or the local lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is only 26%. The survival probability drops to 5% if it has spread to distant body sections.

It’s critical to keep in mind that estimates represent the survival rates for those with esophageal cancer. The estimate is based on annual data on the number of Americans who have this cancer. Additionally, every five years, experts measure the survival rates. This indicates that the estimate might not account for improvements in the last five years in the detection or treatment of esophageal cancer. If you have any questions concerning this material, consult your doctor. Find out more about how to comprehend statistics.

Statistics taken from the International Agency for Research on Cancer website, the ACS website, and the publication Cancer Facts & Figures 2022 by the American Cancer Society (ACS). (Accessed January 2022 for all sources.)

What principal factors give rise to esophageal cancer?

Why does esophageal cancer develop?

  • excessive alcohol use.
  • chronic acid reflux or heartburn.
  • Disease of the gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
  • A disease called Barrett’s esophagus can occasionally appear in GERD sufferers.
  • Achalasia is an uncommon condition that affects the lower esophageal muscles.

Who has a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer?

You can learn more about the variables that raise your risk of acquiring esophageal cancer on the following page. To view additional pages, use the navigation.

Anything that raises a person’s chances of getting cancer is a risk factor. Although risk factors frequently affect how cancer develops, the majority do not really cause cancer. While some people who have a number of risk factors never get cancer, others who have no known risk factors do. Making better educated decisions regarding your lifestyle and medical care may be aided by being aware of your risk factors and discussing them with your doctor.

The risk of esophageal cancer may increase as a result of the following factors:

Age. The risk of developing esophageal cancer is highest in those between the ages of 45 and 70.

Gender. Esophageal cancer strikes men three to four times more frequently than it strikes women.

Race. Squamous cell esophageal cancer strikes black people twice as frequently as white people.

Tobacco. The risk of esophageal cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma, is increased by using tobacco products of any kind, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, and snuff.

Alcohol. Long-term heavy drinking raises the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, especially when paired with tobacco use.

esophageal Barrett’s. Even when a person does not exhibit symptoms of chronic heartburn, this illness can arise in some persons who have chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or esophagitis, an inflammatory disorder of the esophagus. The squamous cells that make up the lining of the esophagus change into glandular tissue when it is damaged. The risk of getting esophageal cancer is still rather low, but those with Barrett’s esophagus are more likely to get adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

Diet/nutrition. A person’s chance of acquiring esophageal cancer can be raised by eating a diet that is low in fruits, vegetables, and specific vitamins and minerals.

Obesity. The likelihood of getting esophageal adenocarcinoma can rise when a person is extremely overweight and has too much body fat.

Lye. Lye poisoning in children increases their risk of developing squamous cell cancer. Some cleaning supplies, such drain cleaners, include lye.

Achalasia. Achalasia is a condition when the lower esophageal muscle ring does not relax during meal swallowing. The risk of squamous cell carcinoma is increased by achalasia.

H. papilloma virus (HPV). There is no conclusive evidence that squamous cell esophageal cancer is connected to HPV, despite the fact that researchers are looking into HPV as a risk factor for esophageal cancer. The most typical way for someone to contract HPV is through sexual contact with someone who has it. HPV comes in various varieties, or strains. According to research, some HPV strains are more closely associated with particular cancers. Certain cancers can be avoided with the use of the HPV vaccine. Raise your awareness about HPV and cancer.

What signs did you initially have of esophageal cancer?

Oesophageal cancer symptoms can range widely, although they may be difficult to recognize.

They may impair your digestion, including:

  • difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • an ill feeling or being
  • indigestion or acid reflux
  • indigestion signs like frequent burping

Additional signs include:

  • a cough that does not go away
  • appetite loss or weight loss without attempting to
  • feeling worn out or uninspired
  • discomfort in your chest or throat, especially when swallowing

You might experience sensations like this on a regular basis if you have another ailment, such gastroesophageal reflux disease.

You might discover that you adjust to them. But if your symptoms alter, worsen, or don’t feel normal to you, it’s crucial to see a doctor.

The first place where esophageal cancer spreads is?

The 10-inch-long, hollow, muscular tube known as the esophagus connects the throat to the stomach. It is a component of the digestive system, often known as the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The esophagus’s walls contract as a person swallows, forcing food into the stomach.

About esophageal cancer

Healthy cells transform and grow out of control to form a mass known as a tumor, which is how cancer starts. A tumor may be benign or malignant. Malignant refers to the ability of a cancerous tumor to develop and metastasize to different body regions. If a tumor is benign, it can enlarge but won’t spread. The cells that line the esophagus are where esophageal cancer, also known as esophagus cancer, develops.

In particular, esophageal cancer starts in the inner layer of the esophageal wall and spreads outward. The tiny, bean-shaped structures that help fight infection, the lymph nodes, as well as the blood arteries in the chest and other adjacent organs, can all be affected if it penetrates the esophagus wall and spreads. Additionally, esophageal cancer has the potential to metastasize to the liver, stomach, lungs, and other organs.

Types of esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer comes in two primary subtypes:

carcinoma of the squamous cell. The squamous cells that lining the esophagus are where this type of esophageal cancer begins. The upper and middle portions of the esophagus are where it typically develops.

Adenocarcinoma. This kind starts in the glandular tissue at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach in the lower section of the esophagus.

Both of these esophageal cancer forms can be treated in a similar manner. There are additional, extremely rare esophageal tumor types. Less than 1% of esophageal cancers are these, which include sarcoma, lymphomas, and small cell neuroendocrine tumors.

How likely is it that I’ll develop esophageal cancer?

According to projections from the American Cancer Society, there will be an estimated:

  • 20,640 new cases of esophageal cancer were reported (16,510 in men and 4,130 in women)
  • approximately 16,410 esophageal cancer fatalities (13,250 in men and 3,160 in women)

Males than females are more likely to develop esophageal cancer. In the US, esophageal cancer has a lifetime risk of 1 in 125 for males and 1 in 417 for women. (For more on variables that may impact these probabilities, see Esophageal Cancer Risk Factors.)

The incidence of esophageal cancer in the United States has generally been steady for a long time, while it has been modestly declining during the past ten years. The majority of white people have it. The most prevalent esophageal cancer in white people is adenocarcinoma, but squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent in African Americans. Asians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of esophageal cancer, followed by American Indians and Alaska Natives.

In the United States, esophageal cancer accounts for around 1% of all cancer diagnoses, but it is significantly more prevalent in various other regions of the world, including Iran, northern China, India, and southern Africa.

Even though esophageal cancer often results in death, survival rates are increasing thanks to advances in treatment. Only approximately 5% of patients in the 1960s and 1970s lived for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Today, 20% of patients remain alive at least five years following diagnosis. All esophageal cancer patients, regardless of stage, are included in this figure. People with early-stage cancer have higher survival rates. See Esophageal Cancer Survival Rates by Stage for further information on survival rates.

For more pertinent statistics, go to the Cancer Statistics Center of the American Cancer Society.